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Refractive index of seawater Table of
contents

 

Refractive index of seawater
    Refractive index of seawater, complex
    Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part

Refractive index of seawater, complex

Refractive index of seawater, complex, data

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, data

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, formulas

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, models

Refractive index of seawater, reviews

 ■ Refractive index

 ■ Refractive index of water

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Refractive index of seawater, complex

Refractive index of seawater, complex, data

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part

 ■ Refractive index, complex

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex

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Refractive index of seawater, complex, data

wavelength 1500 nm to 15 μm (artificial seawater): Friedman D 1969

wavelength 3.37, 8.21, 12.6, and 15 to 100 mm (89, 36.5, 23.8, and 20 to 3 GHz), temperature -2 to 30 °C, salinity 20 to 40 ppt: Ellison W et al 1998 (complex dielectric function)

Refractive index of seawater, complex

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex, data

 ■ Refractive index, complex, and dielectric function

 ■ Refractive index, of

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Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, data

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, formulas

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, models

Refractive index of seawater, complex

 ■ Refractive index, complex, real part

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex, real part

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Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, data

wavelength 400 to 700 nm, salinity 0 to 43 ppt, temperature 0 to 30 °C, pressure 0 to 11,000 db: Austin RW and Halikas 1976

wavelength 404.7, 435.8, 467.8, 480.0, 508.5, 546.1, 577.0, 579.1, 589.3, 643.8 nm, temperature 1 to 30 °C, salinity 0 to 19.4 ppt: Mehu A and Johannin-Gilles 1968 (minimum deviation method)

wavelength 501.7 and 632.8 nm, salinity 35.00 ppt, temperature 0.03 to 30 °C; pressure 0 to 1406 kg cm-2: Stanley EM 1971b (interferometer, see also comments by Millard RC and Seaver 1990)

wavelength 546.2 nm, salinity 30.9 to 38.8 ppt, temperature 15 to 30 °C: Rusby JSM 1967

wavelength 589.26 nm, salinity 0 to 40 ppt, temperature 0 to 40 °C: Sager G 1974

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex, real part, data

 ■ Refractive index, of

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Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, formulas

8 terms: Pak H et al 1979 (simplified formula of Leyendekkers JV 1977, see also Leyendekkers JV and Hunter 1976)

10 terms; RMS error 15 ppm; wavelength 500-700 nm; salinity 0 to 35 ppt; temperature 0 to 30 °C: Quan Xiaohong and Fry 1995

 m' ( S, T, λ) = a0 +
      ( a1 + a2 T + a3 T 2 ) S + a4 T 2 +
      ( a5 + a6 S + a7 T ) / λ + a8 / λ2 + a9 / λ3
 (QF1995)

where m' is the real part of the refractive index of seawater, S [ppt] is the salinity, T [°C] is the temperature, λ [nm] is the wavelength of light in vacuum. The coefficients ai, i = 0 to 9, are listed in file RefIndOfSeawater_QuanFry1995_ai.txt.

12 terms; salinity 0 to 35 ppt; temperature 0 to 10 °C; pressure ambient plus 0 to 6865 db: McNeil GT 1977 (see also a comparison with other algorithms in Huibers PDT 1997, Quan Xiaohong and Fry 1995)

12 terms; wavelength 404.4 to 643.8 nm, salinity 0 to 35 ppt; temperature 0 to 30 °C; pressure ambient: Matthäus W 1974

15 terms: Leyendekkers JV 1977 (see also Leyendekkers JV and Hunter 1976)

27 terms; error ≤ 0.4 ppm water at ambient pressure to ≤ 80 ppm at high pressures; wavelength 500 to 700 nm; temperature 0 to 30 °C; salinity 0 to 40 psu; pressure ambient, 0 to 11,000 db: Millard RC and Seaver 1990

 m' ( λ, T, S, p ) =
      m' 1 ( λ, T ) +
      m' 2 ( S, T, λ ) +
      m' 3 ( p, λ, T ) +
      m' 4 ( p, T, S )
 (MS1990_1)

where m' is the real part of the refractive index of seawater, λ [nm] is the wavelength of light in vacuum, S [psu] is the salinity, T [°C] is the temperature, p [db] is pressure, and

 m' 1 ( λ, T ) = A0 +
      L2 λ2 + LM2 λ-2 + LM4 λ-4 + LM6 λ-6 +
      T1 T + T2 T 2 + T3 T 3 + T4 T 4 +
      TL T λ + T2L T2 λ + T3L T 3 λ
 (MS1990_2)

is based on the data of Tilton LW and Taylor 1938,

 m' 2 ( S, T, λ ) = S0 S +
      STL S T λ + S1LM2 S λ-2 +
      S1T S T + S1T2 S T 2 + S1T3 S T 3
 (MS1990_3)

is based on the data of Mehu A and Johannin-Gilles 1968,

 m' 3 ( p, λ, T ) = P1 p + P2 p2 + PLM2 p λ-2 +
      PT p T + PT2 p T 2 + P2T2 p2 T 2
 (MS1990_4)

is based on the data of Waxler RM et al 1964, and

 m' 4 ( p, T, S ) = P1S p S + PTS p T S + PT2S p T 2 S  (MS1990_5)

is based on the data of Stanley EM 1971b.

The coefficients are listed in file RefIndOfSeawater_MillardSeaver1990_cfs.txt.

Millard RC and Seaver 1990 provide a set of check values at λ = 589.26 nm, from which the following sample is taken:

m' = 1.333884 at p = 0 db, T = 5 °C, S = 0 psu
m' = 1.342317 at p = 2000 db, T = 10 °C, S = 30 psu
m' = 1.355414 at p = 10000 db, T = 5 °C, S = 40 psu

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex, real part, formulas

 ■ Refractive index, of

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Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, models

thermodynamic model: Zhang Xiaodong et al 2009a, Zhang Xiaodong and Hu 2009b, Zhang Xiaodong and Hu 2009a

Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex, models

 ■ Refractive index, of

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Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, reviews

Jonasz M and Fournier 2007 (pp. 451-462), Millard RC and Seaver 1990, Austin RW and Halikas 1976

 ■ Refractive index, of

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CITATION:
Jonasz M. 2007. Refractive index of seawater (www.mjcopticaltech.com/Publications/RefIndOfSeawater.php).
Published: 21-Nov-2007

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