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Refractive index of seawater | Table of contents |
▶ Refractive index of seawater
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, data
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, data
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, formulas
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, models
▶ Refractive index of seawater, reviews
Refractive index of seawater, complex
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, data
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part
■ Refractive index of water, complex
Refractive index of seawater, complex, data
wavelength 1500 nm to 15 μm (artificial seawater): Friedman D 1969
wavelength 3.37, 8.21, 12.6, and 15 to 100 mm (89, 36.5, 23.8, and 20 to 3 GHz), temperature -2 to 30 °C, salinity 20 to 40 ppt: Ellison W et al 1998 (complex dielectric function)
◀ Refractive index of seawater, complex
■ Refractive index of water, complex, data
■ Refractive index, complex, and dielectric function
Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, data
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, formulas
▶ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, models
◀ Refractive index of seawater, complex
■ Refractive index, complex, real part
■ Refractive index of water, complex, real part
Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, data
wavelength 400 to 700 nm, salinity 0 to 43 ppt, temperature 0 to 30 °C, pressure 0 to 11,000 db: Austin RW and Halikas 1976
wavelength 404.7, 435.8, 467.8, 480.0, 508.5, 546.1, 577.0, 579.1, 589.3, 643.8 nm, temperature 1 to 30 °C, salinity 0 to 19.4 ppt: Mehu A and Johannin-Gilles 1968 (minimum deviation method)
wavelength 501.7 and 632.8 nm, salinity 35.00 ppt, temperature 0.03 to 30 °C; pressure 0 to 1406 kg cm^{-2}: Stanley EM 1971b (interferometer, see also comments by Millard RC and Seaver 1990)
wavelength 546.2 nm, salinity 30.9 to 38.8 ppt, temperature 15 to 30 °C: Rusby JSM 1967
wavelength 589.26 nm, salinity 0 to 40 ppt, temperature 0 to 40 °C: Sager G 1974
◀ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part
■ Refractive index of water, complex, real part, data
Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, formulas
8 terms: Pak H et al 1979 (simplified formula of Leyendekkers JV 1977, see also Leyendekkers JV and Hunter 1976)
10 terms; RMS error 15 ppm; wavelength 500-700 nm; salinity 0 to 35 ppt; temperature 0 to 30 °C: Quan Xiaohong and Fry 1995
m' ( S, T, λ) = a_{0} + ( a_{1} + a_{2} T + a_{3} T^{ 2} ) S + a_{4} T^{ 2} + ( a_{5} + a_{6} S + a_{7} T ) / λ + a_{8} / λ^{2} + a_{9} / λ^{3} |
(QF1995) |
where m' is the real part of the refractive index of seawater, S [ppt] is the salinity, T [°C] is the temperature, λ [nm] is the wavelength of light in vacuum. The coefficients a_{i}, i = 0 to 9, are listed in file RefIndOfSeawater_QuanFry1995_ai.txt.
12 terms; salinity 0 to 35 ppt; temperature 0 to 10 °C; pressure ambient plus 0 to 6865 db: McNeil GT 1977 (see also a comparison with other algorithms in Huibers PDT 1997, Quan Xiaohong and Fry 1995)
12 terms; wavelength 404.4 to 643.8 nm, salinity 0 to 35 ppt; temperature 0 to 30 °C; pressure ambient: Matthäus W 1974
15 terms: Leyendekkers JV 1977 (see also Leyendekkers JV and Hunter 1976)
27 terms; error ≤ 0.4 ppm water at ambient pressure to ≤ 80 ppm at high pressures; wavelength 500 to 700 nm; temperature 0 to 30 °C; salinity 0 to 40 psu; pressure ambient, 0 to 11,000 db: Millard RC and Seaver 1990
m' ( λ, T, S, p ) = m'_{ 1} ( λ, T ) + m'_{ 2} ( S, T, λ ) + m'_{ 3} ( p, λ, T ) + m'_{ 4} ( p, T, S ) |
(MS1990_1) |
where m' is the real part of the refractive index of seawater, λ [nm] is the wavelength of light in vacuum, S [psu] is the salinity, T [°C] is the temperature, p [db] is pressure, and
m'_{ 1} ( λ, T ) = A0 + L2 λ^{2} + LM2 λ^{-2} + LM4 λ^{-4} + LM6 λ^{-6} + T1 T + T2 T^{ 2} + T3 T^{ 3} + T4 T^{ 4} + TL T λ + T2L T^{2} λ + T3L T^{ 3} λ |
(MS1990_2) |
is based on the data of Tilton LW and Taylor 1938,
m'_{ 2} ( S, T, λ ) = S0 S + STL S T λ + S1LM2 S λ^{-2} + S1T S T + S1T2 S T^{ 2} + S1T3 S T^{ 3} |
(MS1990_3) |
is based on the data of Mehu A and Johannin-Gilles 1968,
m'_{ 3} ( p, λ, T ) = P1 p + P2 p^{2} + PLM2 p λ^{-2} + PT p T + PT2 p T^{ 2} + P2T2 p^{2} T^{ 2} |
(MS1990_4) |
is based on the data of Waxler RM et al 1964, and
m'_{ 4} ( p, T, S ) = P1S p S + PTS p T S + PT2S p T^{ 2} S | (MS1990_5) |
is based on the data of Stanley EM 1971b.
The coefficients are listed in file RefIndOfSeawater_MillardSeaver1990_cfs.txt.
Millard RC and Seaver 1990 provide a set of check values at λ = 589.26 nm, from which the following sample is taken:
m' = 1.333884 at p = 0 db, T = 5 °C, S = 0 psu |
m' = 1.342317 at p = 2000 db, T = 10 °C, S = 30 psu |
m' = 1.355414 at p = 10000 db, T = 5 °C, S = 40 psu |
◀ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part
■ Refractive index of water, complex, real part, formulas
Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, models
thermodynamic model: Zhang Xiaodong et al 2009a, Zhang Xiaodong and Hu 2009b, Zhang Xiaodong and Hu 2009a
◀ Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part
■ Refractive index of water, complex, models
Refractive index of seawater, complex, real part, reviews
Jonasz M and Fournier 2007 (pp. 451-462), Millard RC and Seaver 1990, Austin RW and Halikas 1976
CITATION: Jonasz M. 2007. Refractive index of seawater (www.mjcopticaltech.com/Publications/RefIndOfSeawater.php). |
Published: 21-Nov-2007 |
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