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An instrument measuring light scattering by a turbid medium is typically referred to as nephelometer. An integrating nephelometer measures the (nearly) total light scattering by the medium, while differential nephelometer (polar or two-dimensional) measures differential light scattering, i.e. scattering as a function of direction relative to the direction of incident light beam.
A differential nephelometer measures light scattering as a function of direction in a turbid medium relative to the direction of the incident light beam. In a homogeneous medium with axial symmetry of light scattering it is enough to measure light scattering as a function of an angle between the observation direction and the direction of the incident beam. In this case, the differential nephelometer is referred to as a polar nephelometer. If light scattering by the medium is not axially symmetrical or if one is interested in light scattering by a single particle that is not radially symmerical, one needs a two-dimensional nephelometer.
If a turbid medium of interest does not exhibit axial symmetry of light scattering, or if one is interested in light scattering by a single particle that is not radially symmerical, one needs a two-dimensional nephelometer to measure light scattering as a function of two angles: the angle between the observation direction and the incident beam direction (scattering angle) as well as the angle the plane containing these two directions makes with an arbitrary reference plane (the azimuthal angle).
Jonasz M. 2016. Nephelometer (www.mjcopticaltech.com/Publications/Neph.php).
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