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Absorption coefficient of water Table of
contents

 

Absorption coefficient of water, freshwater

Absorption coefficient of water, heavy (D2O)

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters, freshwater

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters, seawater

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), data

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), data files

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), graphs

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), phase change

Absorption coefficient of water, reviews

Absorption coefficient of water, seawater

 ■ Absorption coefficient

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Absorption coefficient of water, freshwater

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters, freshwater

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Absorption coefficient of water, heavy (D2O)

wavelength 254 nm to 578 nm: Boivin LP et al 1986

wavelength 390 nm to 790 nm, temperature 23°C: Sullivan SA 1963

wavelength 446 nm to 694 nm, temperature 21.5°C: Tam AC and Patel 1979

wavelength 500 nm to 1125 nm: Braun CL and Smirnov 1993

wavelength 2 μm to30 μm, temperature -180 °C to 20 °C: Giguere PA and Harvey 1956

wavelength 10 μm to 330 μm, temperature 5 °C to 75 °C: Draegert DA et al 1966

 ■ Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters

 ■ Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

 ■ Absorption coefficient

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Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters, freshwater

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters, seawater

 ■ Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

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Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters, freshwater

wavelength 200 nm to 700 nm, Patagonian lakes: Garcia PE et al 2015

wavelength 400 nm to 700 nm, Lake Tahoe, Nevada: Belzile C et al 2002

wavelength 400 nm to 700 nm, Lake Biwa, Japan: Watanabe S et al 2012

wavelength 410 nm to 700 nm, Wisconsin lakes: James HR and Birge 1938

wavelength ~430 nm to ~630 nm, Lake Ontario: Bukata RP et al 1995 (p. 103), Bukata RP et al 1979

wavelength 475 nm, Lake Baikal, long-pathlength measurement (as absorption length) with point-source absorption meter: Balkanov V et al 1999

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters

 ■ Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

 ■ Absorption coefficient

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Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters, seawater

wavelength 200 nm to 800 nm, clearest waters: Smith RC and Baker 1981

wavelength 300 nm to 600 nm, clearest waters (South Pacific gyre near Easter Island): Morel A et al 2007

wavelength 350 to 550 nm, oligotrophic oceans: Lee Zhongping et al 2015

wavelength 380 nm to 600 nm, seawater types (as defined by the optical index, see Pelevin VN and Rutkovskaya 1977): Pelevin VN and Rostovtseva 2001

wavelength 390 nm to 690 nm, Sargasso Sea: Ivanov AP 1975

wavelength 412 nm to 676 nm: coastal waters off Goa, India: Thayapurath Suresh et al 2016

wavelength unspecified, Pacific off Panama, Southern California, Hawaii: Stephenson EB 1934

See also a review by Wozniak B and Dera 2007.

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters

 ■ Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

 ■ Absorption coefficient

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Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), data

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), graphs

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), data files

 ■ Absorption coefficient

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex

TOP

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), data

The absorption coefficient, a, is related to the imaginary part of the complex refractive index of water, m", by Eq. 1 in Absorption coefficient, and refractive index. Hence, for data on a (expressed as m"), you can also see Refractive index of water, complex, data.

wavelength 10 nm to 10 m (Kramers-Krönig analysis): Querry MR et al 1991

wavelength 11.2 nm to 20 nm: Mota R et al 2005

wavelength 12.4 nm to 1.24 μm: Hayashi Hisashi and Nozomu 2015

wavelength 175 nm to 195 nm, temperature 23.5 °C to 91.8 °C: Stevenson DP 1965

wavelength 181 nm to 340 nm, temperature 10 °C to 30 °C, oxygen-free water: Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014

wavelength 186 nm to 500 nm, temperature 23 °C: Romanov NP and Shuklin 1985

wavelength 196 nm to 320 nm, temperature 25 °C: Quickenden TI and Irvin 1980

wavelength 200 nm to 690 nm: Dawson LH and Hulburt 1934

wavelength 200 nm to 700 nm (composited data): Wozniak B et al 2005

wavelength 200 nm to 800: Smith RC and Baker 1981

wavelength 200 nm to 200 μm (Kramers-Krönig analysis): Hale GM and Querry 1973

wavelength 200 nm to 200 μm: Irvine WM and Pollack 1968

wavelength 200 nm to 230 nm, temperature 10 to 65 °C: Heidt LJ and Johnson 1957

wavelength 210 nm to 350 nm: Grundinkina NP 1956

wavelength 220 nm to 280 nm: Armstrong FAJ and Boalch 1961a (see also Armstrong FAJ and Boalch 1961b)

wavelength 220 nm to 400 nm: Lenoble J and Saint-Guilly 1955

wavelength 250 nm to 400 nm, temperature 25 °C: Wang Ling 2008 (integrating cavity absorption meter)

wavelength 250 to 550 nm, temperature 23 °C: Mason JD et al 2016 (integrating cavity absorption meter)

wavelength 254 nm to 578 nm: Boivin LP et al 1986

wavelength 254 nm to 612 nm: Hulburt EO 1928

wavelength 300 nm to 700 nm, temperature 25.1 °C: Litjens RAJ et al 1999
see also comment by Fry ES 2000a

wavelength 300 nm to 800 nm, temperature 2.5-40.5 °C: Buiteveld H et al 1994

wavelength 310 nm to 650 nm: Sawyer WR 1931

wavelength 340 nm to 640 nm: Sogandares FM and Fry 1997

wavelength 351 nm to 528 nm: Cruz RA et al 2009

wavelength 360 nm to 2.362 μm, temperature 27 °C: Palmer KF and Williams 1974

wavelength 365 nm to 800 nm: Clarke GL and James 1939 (essentially the same data are given in James HR and Birge 1938)

wavelength 380 nm to 700 nm: Morel A and Prieur 1977

wavelength 380 nm to 725 nm, temperature 22 °C: Pope RM and Fry 1997
see also comment by Quickenden TI et al 2000 and reply by Fry ES 2000b

wavelength 380 nm to 800 nm (composited data): Jonasz M and Fournier 2007

wavelength 390 nm to 600 nm: Kopelevich OV and Filippov 1994

wavelength 400 nm to 790 nm, temperature 23 °C: Sullivan SA 1963

wavelength 412 nm to 715 nm, temperature 11-33 °C: Pegau WS and Zaneveld 1994

wavelength 412 nm to 925 nm, temperature 15-30 °C, salinity 0 to 38 PSU: Pegau WS et al 1997

wavelength 419 nm to 640 nm, temperature 26.4 °C: Querry MR et al 1978

wavelength 446 nm to 694 nm, temperature 21.5 °C: Tam AC and Patel 1979

wavelengths 488 nm, 514.5 nm: Hass M and Davisson 1977 (adiabatic laser calorimetry, see also Hass M et al 1975)

wavelength 500 nm to 1125 nm: Braun CL and Smirnov 1993

wavelength 515 nm to 750 nm, temperature 4-38 °C: Pegau WS and Zaneveld 1993

wavelength 550 nm to 760 nm, temperature 6-30 °C: Trabjerg I and Højerslev 1996

wavelength 550 nm to 900 nm, 15-60 °C: Langford VS et al 2001

wavelength 667 nm to 2.50 μm, temperature 22°C: Kou Linhong et al 1993

wavelength 667 nm to 10,395 nm (composite data): Bertie JE and Lan 1996

wavelength 700 nm to 2.50 μm, temperature 20°C: Curcio JA and Petty 1951

wavelength 800 nm to 2.3 μm: Collins JR 1922

wavelength 800 nm to 20 μm: Wieliczka DM et al 1989

wavelength 1 μm to 16 μm: Centeno VM 1941

wavelength 1 μm to 106 μm: Zolotarev VM et al 1970, Zolotarev VM et al 1969

wavelength 1.25 μm to 2.272 μm: Jensen PS and Bak 2002

wavelength 1.25 μm to 1.6 μm: de Paula MH et al 2009

wavelength 1.65 μm to 2.65 μm: Collins JR 1939

wavelength 1.67 μm to DC (6000 to 0 cm-1; attenuated total reflection method): Max JJ and Chapados 2009

wavelength 2 μm to 30 μm, temperature 20 °C to -180 °C: Giguère PA and Harvey 1956

wavelength 2 μm to 30.3 μm, temperature 25 °C: Rusk AN et al 1971

wavelength 2 μm to 42 μm: Plyler EK and Acquista 1954

wavelength 2 μm to 0,000 μm: Zolotarev VM and Demin 1977

wavelengths 2.09 μm and 2.014 μm, 20-100 °C: Lange BI et al 2002

wavelength 2.33 μm to 33.33 μm: Robertson CW and Williams 1971

wavelength 2.5 μm to 7.5 μm: Fox JJ and Martin 1940

wavelength 2.7 μm to 3.75 μm: Kondratyev KY et al 1963

wavelength 3.333 μm to 10.707 μm: Marley NA et al 1994

wavelength 10 μm to 330 μm: temperature 5-75 °C: Draegert DA et al 1966

wavelength 80.59 μm to 999.3 μm: Xu Jing et al 2006

wavelength 1 mm to 6 mm: Czumaj Z 1990

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), graphs

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), data files

 ■ Absorption coefficient of water, heavy (D2O)

 ■ Absorption coefficient, and refractive index

 ■ Absorption coefficient

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex, data

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex

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Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), data files

Some of the data referred to in the following table are shown in Fig. 1 ( 10-2 to 107 μm), Fig. 2 (~0.01 to 0.38 μm), Fig. 3 (~0.2 to 1 μm), and Fig. 4 (1 to 100 μm) of Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), graphs. Please see composite data in the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum (0.200-0.700 μm and 0.380-0.800 μm) suggested by two recent comprehensive monographs. See also http://omlc.org/spectra/water/index.html for additional references and independently edited data files. Abbreviations: ND - no data.
 

Wavelength,
λ, μm
Temperature,
°C
Measurement
or derivation method
Purification method Data file
Figure
Reference
0.010-107
(10nm-10m)
25-30 complex refractive
index aa
ND get data
Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4
Querry MR et al 1991 wa
0.0124-1.24
(12.4nm-1.24μm)
ND IXS ab deionization get data
Fig. 1, 2
Hayashi Hisashi and Nozomu 2015
0.175-0.195 23-91.8 transmission single-stage destillation get data
Fig. 2, 3
Stevenson DP 1965
0.181-0.340 10-30 transmission purification system zg get data zh
Fig. 2, 3
Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014
0.186-0.500 23 transmission single-distilled ga get data
(0.186-0.205 μm)

Fig. 2, 3
Romanov NP and Shuklin 1985
0.196-0.320 25 transmission quadruple-distilled, deoxygenated fa get data pa
Fig. 1, 2, 3
Quickenden TI and Irvin 1980
0.200-0.690 ND transmission double-distilled get data
Fig. 2, 3
Dawson LH and Hulburt 1934
0.200-0.700 varies composite
data la, oa
ND get data
Fig. 2, 3
Wozniak B et al 2005 ma
0.200-0.800 ND ND ND get data
Fig. 2, 3
Smith RC and Baker 1981 ja, r1, va, vb
0.200-200.0 ~25 ia complex refractive
index ha
varies get data
Fig. 1, 2, 3, 3
Hale GM and Querry 1973
0.200-200.0 varies composite
data ac
varies get data
Fig. 2, 3, 3
Irvine WM and Pollack 1968
0.220-0.400 ND transmission double-distilled get data
Fig. 2, 3
Lenoble J and Saint-Guilly 1955
0.250-0.550 ND ICAM zl purification system bc get data
Mason JD et al 2016
0.254-0.578 ND transmission ta filtration and
distillation ua
get data
Fig. 2, 3
Boivin LP et al 1986
0.254-0.612 ND transmission quadruple-distilled get data
Fig. 2, 3
Hulburt EO 1928
0.300-0.700 25.1 transmission quadruple-
distilled fa
get
data
pa, qa
Fig. 2, 3
Litjens RAJ et al 1999 ba
0.300-0.800 2.5-40.5 absorption
meter ca
reverse osmosis and distillation get data (20°C)
Fig. 2, 3
Buiteveld H et al 1994 sa
0.310-0.650 ND transmission bb distilled get data
Fig. 2, 3
Sawyer WR 1931
0.340-0.640 25 PDS zj Millipore Milli-Q get data
Fig. 2, 3
Sogandares FM and Fry 1997 rb
0.351-0.528 23 PTL zf purification system yb get data vc
Fig. 1, 2, 3
Cruz RA et al 2009
0.365-0.800 ND xe transmission xa distillation xb get data
Fig. 2, 3
Clarke GL and James 1939 zi
0.365-0.800 ND zb transmission xb distillation xb get data
Fig. 2, 3
James HR and Birge 1938 yc
0.380-0.700 ND transmission ad double-distilled ae get data af
Fig. 2
Morel A and Prieur 1977
0.380-0.725 22 ICAM zk reagent-grade get data
Fig. 2
Pope RM and Fry 1997 rc
0.380-0.800 varies composite
data na, oa
ND get data
Fig. 2
Jonasz M and Fournier 2007, p. 77
0.390-0.600 ND ND ND get data
Fig. 2
Kopelevich OV and Filippov 1994
0.400-0.790 23 transmission triple-distilled get data
Fig. 2
Sullivan SA 1963 ja
0.4186-0.6403 26.4 split-pulse transmission ka deionized filtered
water da
get data
Fig. 2
Querry MR et al 1978
0.446-0.694 21.5 photoacoustic double-distilled get data
Fig. 2
Tam AC and Patel 1979
0.667-2.500 22 transmission freshly distilled water get data
Fig. 2, 3
Kou Linhong et al 1993 rd
0.667-10,395 varies varies varies get data
Fig. 2, 3
Bertie JE and Lan 1996 zc
0.8-2.3 cb ND transmission cc ND get data
Fig. 2, 3
Collins JR 1922
0.8-20 ND transmission ze ND get data
Fig. 2, 3
Wieliczka DM et al 1989
2-30.3 25 reflectance ya ND get data
Fig. 3
Rusk AN et al 1971
2-50,000
(2μm - 5cm)
25 reflectance ea ND get data
Fig. 1, 3
Zolotarev VM and Demin 1977
2.33-33.33
ND transmission ND get data
Fig. 3
Robertson CW and Williams 1971
80.5-999.3
22 ATR za distilled, deionized get data
Fig. 1
Xu Jing et al 2006
 

aa - results of a compilation of the imaginary part of the refractive index data were used to derive the real part by using Kramers-Krönig analysis
[back to table at Querry 1991, menu]

ab - inelastic x-ray scattering. The multiple scattering contribution was subtracted.
[back to table at Hayashi 2015, menu]

ac - the data have been compiled (interpolated) by the data authors (Irvine WM and Pollack 1968) from various sources in the following wavelength ranges: 0.2 to 0.65 μm: Dorsey NE 1940, 0.7 to 2.35 μm: Curcio JA and Petty 1951, 2.40 to 2.65 μm: Collins JR 1939, 2.70 to 3.75 μm: Kondratyev KY et al 1963, 4.00 to 7.5 μm: Fox JJ and Martin 1940, 8 to 10 μm: Plyler EK and Acquista 1954, 10.5 to 12 μm: Draegert DA et al 1966, 12.5 to 16 μm: Centeno VM 1941, 17.5 to 20 μm: interpolated between the values of Draegert DA et al 1966 and Centeno VM 1941, 25 to 200 μm: Draegert DA et al 1966
[back to table at Irvine 1968, menu]

ad - a Beckman DU spectrophotometer with 110 cm long cell was used. The optical path of the spectrophotometer was modified to collimate the incident beam and to minimize the scattered light contribution to the detector signal by using two apertures .
[back to table at Morel 1977, menu]

ae - distilled water was evaporated without boiling and cooled in a quartz vessel. The water so obtained flowed directly into the cell.
[back to table at Morel 1977, menu]

af - the measurements of transmission through the water-filled cell were corrected by using a calibration factor obtained with an empty cell and by subtracting the calculated Fresnel reflection at the cell windows. The authors caution the reader about the absolute values of the attenuation coefficient, c, they obtained. The absorption coefficient was obtained by subtracting from c the theoretical scattering coefficient calculated according to Morel A 1974 for wavelengths < 0.6 μm. At the greater wavelengths, the attenuation coefficient of water is dominated by the absorption of light and the absorption coefficient was set to equal the attenuation coefficient.
[back to table at Morel 1977, menu]

ba - see also a comment by Fry ES 2000a, comparing the data of Pope RM and Fry 1997 (PF1997) with the present data, a response by Quickenden TI et al 2000, the reply by Fry ES 2000b. The error envelope provided by Litjens RAJ et al 1999 suggest that their data (L+1999), oscillating vs. the wavelength of light, are nevertheless consistent with those of PF1997 in a wavelength range of less than 0.38 μm, despite the different measurement methods used. As seen in Fig. 2, the data of L+1999 run systematically higher than PF1997 data in the wavelength range of 0.39-0.47 μm, and in most cases even above the data of Smith RC and Baker 1981 for the clearest natural waters (see also note va). The oscillations in L+1999 data in the 0.55-0.70 μm region are claimed by the data authors to represent the overtones and combination tones of the stretching mode of the OH bond. In the UV-blue transition range, these data are consistent with those of Quickenden TI and Irvin 1980.
[back to table at Litjens 1999, menu]

bb - double-path, pathlength of up to 5 m, paraffin-lined water tubes
[back to table at Sawyer 1931, menu]

bc - reverse osmosis followed by electro-deionization, UV-oxidation, and ultrafiltration
[back to table at Mason 2016, menu]

ca - submersible absorption meter (Hakvoort JHM et al 1994)
[back to table at Buiteveld 1994, menu]

cb - tabulated data are only available for four wavelengths corresponding to the absorption maxima in that range
[back to table at Collins 1922, menu]

cc - double-path transmission measurements, two spectrographs in series to reduce stray light, sample thickness varied from 2 cm at 0.8-1.1 μm, to 0.025 cm at 1.7-2.3 μm
[back to table at Collins 1922, menu]

da - the sample was sealed in the cell for 180 days. Extended storage of clean water was found to increase contamination by leaching compounds from the storage container (see also remarks on pure water degradation on storage in Pope RM and Fry 1997, Gabler R et al 1983, Sullivan SA 1963)
[back to table at Querry 1978, menu]

ea - reflectance and attenuated total reflectance coupled with Fresnel and Kramers-Krönig analysis
[back to table at Zolotarev 1977, menu]

fa - quadruple distillation of water, in a specially constructed installation, was followed by combustion at ~600°C of the organic substances remaining after the distillation and the removal of the dissolved oxygen. Specific conductivity of the purified water samples was about 4.3e-5 Ohm-1m-1. The combustion of organics was suggested by Fry ES 2000b to be the source of additional contamination due to an extended contact of the sample with the container at high temperature (see also remarks on pure water degradation on storage in Pope RM and Fry 1997, Gabler R et al 1983, Sullivan SA 1963).
[back to table at Litjens 1999, back to table at Quickenden 1980, menu]

ga - single distillation, using commercial distillation unit, from a hot water sample containing KMnO4. These data run lower than those of Quickenden TI and Irvin 1980.
[back to table at Romanov 1985, menu]

ha - the imaginary part, m", of the refractive index (m = m' - im") was obtained by the data authors by manually smoothing a graph of m"(λ), where λ is the wavelength of light in vacuum, obtained from refractive index data or calculated from light absorption data of other researchers. The real part, m', of the refractive index was obtained by the data authors via subtractive Kramers-Krönig analysis of the imaginary part of the refractive index.
[back to table at Hale 1973, menu]

ia - temperature varies across the data set collected by Hale GM and Querry 1973, most data are for a temperature of about 25 °C
[back to table at Hale 1973, menu]

ja - data of Sullivan SA 1963 are included into the average on which the data of Smith RC and Baker 1981 are based
[back to table at Smith 1981, back to table at Sullivan 1963, menu]

ka - the split-pulse method, as used by Querry MR et al 1978, is essentially a differential (two different pathlength) transmission method. The data authors calculated the molecular scattering coefficient of water and subtracted it from the measured attenuation coefficient. Hence, the result, listed as the absorption coefficient, a, of water actually equals a + bp, where the latter is the scattering coeffcient of particles.
[back to table at Querry 1978, menu]

la - 0.200-0.335 μm: Smith RC and Baker 1981; 0.340-0.370 μm: Sogandares FM and Fry 1997; 0.380-0.700 μm: Pope RM and Fry 1997
[back to table at Wozniak 2005, menu]

ma - see also Wozniak B and Dera 2007, p. 62
[back to table at Wozniak 2005, menu]

na - 0.380-0.7275 μm: Pope RM and Fry 1997; 0.7275-0.8000 μm: Kou Linhong et al 1993
[back to table at Jonasz 2007, menu]

oa - these data share the core of Pope RM and Fry 1997 data
[back to table at Wozniak 2005, back to table at Jonasz 2007, menu]

pa - the data file available on-line before 17 December 2007 contained the log10-based absorption coefficient (i.e. decadic absorption coefficient) instead of ln-based absorption coefficient. The data file available after that date contains the ln-based absorption coefficient.
[back to table at Litjens 1999, back to table at Quickenden 1980, menu]

qa - the data of Litjens RAJ et al 1999, as shown in Fig. 2, were modified for presentation in the log scale as follows: if the original data were negative, an average of the preceding and following data was used. This process was repeated until no negative absoorption coefficient values were left. The data file contains both the original and modified data.
[back to table at Litjens 1999, menu]

ra - suggested by Wozniak B and Dera 2007 and by Wozniak B et al 2005 in the wavelength range of 0.200-0.335 μm, see also Wozniak's et al data summary
[back to table at Smith 1981, menu]

rb - suggested by Wozniak B and Dera 2007 and by Wozniak B et al 2005 in the wavelength range of 0.335-0.380 μm, see also Wozniak's et al data summary
[back to table at Sogandares 1997, menu]

rc - referred to by Jonasz M and Fournier 2007 as the as the first data that are sufficiently accurate in the wavelength range of 0.380-0.7275 μm to show the combination vibrational modes of the water molecule, see also Jonasz and Fournier's data summary. These data have also been suggested by Wozniak B and Dera 2007 and by Wozniak B et al 2005 in the wavelength range of 0.380-0.700 μm (Wozniak's et al data summary). See also a critique of these data by Quickenden TI et al 2000 and a reply by Fry ES 2000b.
[back to table at Pope 1997, menu]

rd - referred to by Jonasz M and Fournier 2007 as the first data that are sufficiently accurate in the wavelength range of 0.728-0.800 μm to show the combination vibrational modes of the water molecule, see also Jonasz and Fournier's data summary
[back to table at Kou 1993, menu]

sa - 0.300-0.394 μm: Boivin LP et al 1986, 0.394-520 μm: Smith RC and Baker 1981, 0.520-0.604 μm: measurements by Buiteveld H et al 1994 which were shifted by 0.01 m-1 to agree with the data of Tam AC and Patel 1979; 0.604-0.800 μm: measurements by Buiteveld H et al 1994
[back to table at Buiteveld 1994, menu]

ta - a single-path transmission arrangement where the effect of the interfaces was corrected from the first principles. From their measurement arrangement it seems that the "absorption coefficient" they measured (Boivin LP et al 1986 refer to it as the attenuation coefficient) includes an unspecified contribution of light scattering.
[back to table at Boivin 1986, menu]

ua - a commercial filtration-deionisation system containing a stage for removing organics, followed by a two-stage distillation over silica
[back to table at Boivin 1986, menu]

va - recent measurements in very clear waters of the Pacific Ocean (Morel A et al 2007) suggest that the absorption coefficient of the clearest natural waters is on the order of 0.006 m-1 at a wavelength of 0.42 μm [vs. 0.0153 m-1 derived by Smith RC and Baker 1981 (SB1981)] and 0.041 m-1 at 0.31 μm [vs. 0.105 m-1 derived by SB1981].
[back to table at Smith 1981, menu]

vb - Schwarz B et al 1990 obtained with a variable-path transmissometer very similar values of the attenuation coefficient, c [m-1], for deionized water distilled over quartz at a wavelength of 0.433 μm [0.019 vs. 0.0186 derived by Smith RC and Baker 1981 (SB1981)], 547 μm [0.068 vs. 0.0653 of SB1981], and 652 μm [0.344 vs. 0.3497 of SB1981].
[back to table at Smith 1981, menu]

vc - recent measurements in very clear waters of the Pacific Ocean (Morel A et al 2007) suggest that the absorption coefficient of the clearest natural waters is on the order of 0.006 m-1 at a wavelength of 0.42 μm [vs. 0.003 m-1 at 0.413 μm obtained by Cruz RA et al 2009].
[back to table at Cruz 2009, menu]

wa - data of Segelstein DJ 1981
[back to table at Querry 1991, menu]

xa - a transmission meter using a sample and a reference cells with differing pathlengths. The tubular cells had the internal surface silvered.
[back to table at James 1938, menu]

xb - distillation in a tin still
[back to table at James 1938, menu]

xc - a transmission meter using a sample and a reference cells with differing pathlengths. The tubular cells had the internal surface silvered.
[back to table at Clarke 1939, menu]

xd - distillation in a tin still
[back to table at Clarke 1939, menu]

xe - description of the measurement conditions implies "room temperature"
[back to table at Clarke 1939, menu]

ya - reflectance (near normal and at 53 deg) measurement (relative to that of an aluminum mirror) performed by the data authors and transmission data of Plyler EK and Griff 1965 in the 2.5-7.143 μm (4000-1400 cm-1) range, Plyler EK and Acquista 1954 in the 7.143-10 μm (1400-1000 cm-1) range, Draegert DA et al 1966 in the 8.333-33.333 μm (1200-300 cm-l) range. The transmission data were modified where necessary to assure consistency with m' and m" values.
[back to table at Rusk 1971, menu]

yb - water sample was deionized and filtered by reverse osmosis with a GEHAKA system before being purified by a Millipore's Milli-Q Plus ultrapure water system. The resistivity of the water sample was ~18 MOhm cm.
[back to table at Cruz 2009, menu]

yc - essentially the same results have been obtained by Clarke GL and James 1939
[back to table at James 1938, back to table at Clarke 1939, menu]

za - attenuated total reflection
[back to table at Xu Jing 2006, menu]

zb - the "room temperature" is implied by the description of the measurement conditions by James HR and Birge 1938
[back to table at James 1938, menu]

zc - composite data (Bertie JE and Lan 1996). These data are recommended by the data authors as the most reliable in the infrared.
[back to table at Bertie 1996, menu]

zd - get selected data (absorption coefficient differing from that at a previous wavelength by more than 0.5%) or the complete data set.
[back to table at Bertie 1996, menu]

ze - a wedge cell was used for transmission measurements
[back to table at Wieliczka 1989, menu]

zf - PTL stands for a photothermal lens method (see Marcano A et al 2001). Water sample was deionized and filtered by reverse osmosis with a GEHAKA system before being purified by a Millipore's Milli-Q Plus ultrapure water system. The resistivity of the water sample was ~18 MOhm cm.
[back to table at Cruz 2009, menu]

zg - water sample was purified by an Ultra Clear TWF UV plus TM system with E1-Ion CEDI system (Siemens). The conductivity of the water sample was ~0.055 μS cm-1.
[back to table at Kröckel 2014, menu]

zh - this data set is abbreviated. Please see the complete attenuation data and scattering coefficient data of Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014.
[back to table at Kröckel 2014, menu]

zi - essentially the same results have been obtained by James HR and Birge 1938.
[back to table at Clarke 1939, back to table at James 1938, menu]

zj - photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) is similar to optoacoustic spectroscopy in that both use the absorption of light by a sample to create a measurement signal. In PDS (for example, Bialkowski SE 1996, Jackson WB et al 1981), the absorption of light by a sample affects the refractive index of the sample which in turn is measured by sensing the deflection of a probe laser beam. A sample application of that latter method is the measurement of the absorption spectra of water (Sogandares FM and Fry 1997).
[back to table at Sogandares 1997, menu]

zk ICAM stands for integrating cavity absorption meter.
[back to table at Pope 1997, menu]

zl ICAM stands for integrating cavity absorption meter. Here, the diffuse reflector of the integrating cavity is fumed silica, which allows measurements at wavelengths as low as 250 nm.
[back to table at Mason 2016, menu]

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

 ■ Absorption coefficient

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Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), graphs

Fig. 1. Some of the representative data (gray squares, ) on the absorption coefficient of light by pure water (H2O) in a wide wavelength range. Fly the mouse over any "show" link below to highlight the corresponding data. Click the "summary" link to access the data file via the parent webpage.

Bertie JE and Lan 1996 (summary, show)
Cruz RA et al 2009 (summary, show)
Hayashi Hisashi and Nozomu 2015 (summary, show)
Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 (summary, show a)
Querry MR et al 1991 (summary, show)
Xu Jing et al 2006 (summary, show)
Zolotarev VM and Demin 1977 (summary, show)

See also some of the representative data in the ultraviolet (UV) (Fig. 2), UV to near infrared (NIR) (Fig. 3), and infrared (IR) (Fig. 4).
 
Notes:
a - the data shown here are calculated by subtracting the scattering coefficient of water (calculated by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014, data file) from the attenuation coefficient of water measured by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 (data file). Please see the original attenuation data of Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 in complete data file. As noted by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014, non-resonant (Rayleigh) scattering coefficient does not fully account for the attenuation coefficient of water at the long-wavelength side of the water absorption edge located at a wavelength of about 0.2 μm. They suggest that the remaining attenuation of light by water, which cannot be accounted for by absorption of light, could be explained by resonant (non-elastic) scattering (Marin TW et al 2006).

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Fig. 2. Some of the representative data (gray squares, ) on the absorption coefficient of light by pure water (H2O) in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range. Representative data for the scattering coefficient of water [thin pale blue curve: a least-squares fit, Eq. 4.128 in Jonasz M and Fournier 2007, to the data of Morel A 1974 (data file), thick blue curve: calculated data of Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 (data file)] are also shown for comparison and also because some absorption coefficient data shown here, obtained by using the transmission measurement, contain unspecified contribution from light scattering by water and impurities. Fly the mouse over any "show" link below to highlight the corresponding data (click the "summary" link to access the data file via the parent webpage):

Boivin LP et al 1986 (summary, show t )
Buiteveld H et al 1994 (summary, show t1 )
Clarke GL and James 1939 (summary, show)
Cruz RA et al 2009 (summary, show)
Dawson LH and Hulburt 1934 (summary, show t )
Hale GM and Querry 1973 (summary, show)
Hayashi Hisashi and Nozomu 2015 (summary, show)
Hulburt EO 1928 (summary, show t )
Irvine WM and Pollack 1968 (summary, show)
James HR and Birge 1938 (summary, show b, t )
Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 (summary, show t2, d )
Lenoble J and Saint-Guilly 1955 (summary, show t )
Litjens RAJ et al 1999 (summary, show t )
Querry MR et al 1991(summary, show a )
Quickenden TI and Irvin 1980 (summary, show t )
Romanov NP and Shuklin 1985 (summary, show)
Sawyer WR 1931 (summary, show t )
Smith RC and Baker 1981 (summary, show)
Sogandares FM and Fry 1997 (summary, show)
Stevenson DP 1965 (at 23.5 °C, summary, show t )
Stevenson DP 1965 (at 25.5 °C, summary, show t )
Wozniak B and Dera 2007 (summary, show c2)

Some of the representative data on the absorption of light by water can also be viewed in a wide wavelength range (Fig. 1), ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) (Fig. 3), and infrared (IR) (Fig. 4).
 
Notes:
a - these data, quoted by Querry MR et al 1991, were obtained by Segelstein DJ 1981

b - results that are substantially similar to those James HR and Birge 1938 have been obtained by Clarke GL and James 1939

c2 - composite data: 0.200-0.335 μm - Smith RC and Baker 1981, 0.340-0.370 - Sogandares FM and Fry 1997 (summary), 0.380-0.7275 μm - Pope RM and Fry 1997 (summary)

d - the data shown here are calculated by subtracting the scattering coefficient of water (calculated by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014, data file) from the attenuation coefficient of water measured by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 (data file). Please see the original attenuation data of Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 in complete data file. As noted by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014, non-resonant (Rayleigh) scattering coefficient does not fully account for the attenuation coefficient of water at the long-wavelength side of the water absorption edge located at a wavelength of about 0.2 μm. They suggest that the remaining attenuation of light by water, which cannot be accounted for by absorption of light, could be explained by resonant (non-elastic) scattering (Marin TW et al 2006).

t - results of transmission measurements that contain unspecified contribution of light scattering by water and impurities

t1 - 0.300-0.394 μm data are those of Boivin LP et al 1986 that contain unspecified contribution of light scattering by water and impurities. To display these data in the above figure, fly the mouse over "show" in the caption line "Boivin LP et al 1986 ...").

t2 - results of transmission measurements that contain unspecified, but insignificant in this wavelength range, contribution of light scattering by water and impurities

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Fig. 3. Some of the representative data (gray squares, ) on the absorption coefficient of light by pure water (H2O) in the ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) spectral range. Data vary widely in the region of the absorption minimum. This variability depends mostly on the method of purification of water. Results obtained by using transmission measurement, generally contain an unspecified contribution from light scattering. Representative data for the scattering coefficient of water [thin pale blue curve: a least-squares fit, Eq. 4.128 in Jonasz M and Fournier 2007, to the data of Morel A 1974 (data file), thick blue curve: calculated data of Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 (data file)] are also shown for comparison and also because some absorption coefficient data shown here, obtained by using the transmission measurement, contain unspecified contribution from light scattering by water and impurities. Fly the mouse over any "show" link below to highlight the corresponding data (click the "summary" link to access the data file via the parent webpage):

Bertie JE and Lan 1996 (summary, show c )
Boivin LP et al 1986 (summary, show t )
Buiteveld H et al 1994 (summary, show t1 )
Clarke GL and James 1939 (summary, show)
Collins JR 1922 (summary, show)
Cruz RA et al 2009 (summary, show)
Dawson LH and Hulburt 1934 (summary, show t )
Hale GM and Querry 1973 (summary, show)
Hulburt EO 1928 (summary, show t )
Irvine WM and Pollack 1968 (summary, show)
James HR and Birge 1938 (summary, show b, t )
Jonasz M and Fournier 2007 b (summary, show c1)
Kopelevich OV and Filippov 1994 (summary, show)
Kou Linhong et al 1993 (summary, show t2 )
Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 (summary, show t2, d)
Lenoble J and Saint-Guilly 1955 (summary, show t )
Litjens RAJ et al 1999 (summary, show t )
Morel A and Prieur 1977 (summary, show t3 )
Pope RM and Fry 1997 (summary, show)
Querry MR et al 1978 (summary, show t )
Querry MR et al 1991 (summary, show a)
Quickenden TI and Irvin 1980 (summary, show t )
Romanov NP and Shuklin 1985 (summary, show)
Sawyer WR 1931 (summary, show t )
Smith RC and Baker 1981 (summary, show)
Sogandares FM and Fry 1997 (summary, show)
Stevenson DP 1965 25.5°C (summary, show t )
Sullivan SA 1963 (summary, show t )
Tam AC and Patel 1979 (summary, show)
Wieliczka DM et al 1989 (summary, show t, e)
Wozniak B and Dera 2007 (summary, show c2)

Some of the representative data on the absorption of light by water can also be viewed in a wide wavelength range (Fig. 1), ultraviolet (UV) (Fig. 2), and infrared (IR) (Fig. 4).
 
Notes:
a - these data, quoted by Querry MR et al 1991, were obtained by Segelstein DJ 1981

b - results that are substantially similar to those James HR and Birge 1938 have been obtained by Clarke GL and James 1939

c - in this wavelength range, these are the data of Kou Linhong et al 1993 (summary)

c1 - composite data: 0.380-0.7275 μm - Pope RM and Fry 1997 (summary), 0.7275-0.8000 μm - Kou Linhong et al 1993 (summary)

c2 - composite data: 0.200-0.335 μm - Smith RC and Baker 1981, 0.340-0.370 - Sogandares FM and Fry 1997 (summary), 0.380-0.7275 μm - Pope RM and Fry 1997 (summary)

d - the data shown here are calculated by subtracting the scattering coefficient of water (calculated by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014, data file) from the attenuation coefficient of water measured by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014 (data file). Please see the original attenuation data of Krökel L and Schmidt 2014 in complete data file. As noted by Kröckel L and Schmidt 2014, non-resonant (Rayleigh) scattering coefficient does not fully account for the attenuation coefficient of water at the long-wavelength side of the water absorption edge located at a wavelength of about 0.2 μm. They suggest that the remaining attenuation of light by water, which cannot be accounted for by absorption of light, could be explained by resonant (non-elastic) scattering (Marin TW et al 2006).

e - data for the wavelength < 1.25 μm are identified by Wieliczka DM et al 1989 as erroneous

t - results of transmission measurements that contain unspecified contribution of light scattering by water and impurities

t1 - 0.300-0.394 μm data are those of Boivin LP et al 1986 that contain unspecified contribution of light scattering by water and impurities. To display these data in the above figure, fly the mouse over "show" in the caption line "Boivin LP et al 1986 ..." above).

t2 - results of transmission measurements that contain unspecified, but insignificant in this wavelength range, contribution of light scattering by water and impurities

t3 - results of transmission measurements the calculated contribution of light scattering by water was subtracted, see note ad in Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), data, summaries

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Fig. 4. Some of the representative data (gray squares, ) on the absorption coefficient of light by pure water (H2O) in the infrared spectral range. Fly the mouse over any "show" link below to highlight the corresponding data. Click the "summary" link to access the data file via the parent webpage):

Bertie JE and Lan 1996 (summary, show c )
Collins JR 1922 (summary, show b )
Hale GM and Querry 1973 (summary, show)
Irvine WM and Pollack 1968 (summary, show)
Kou Linhong et al 1993 (summary, show)
Querry MR et al 1991 (summary, show)
Robertson CW and Williams 1971 (summary, show)
Rusk AN et al 1971 (summary, show)
Wieliczka DM et al 1989 (summary, show e)
Zolotarev VM and Demin 1977 (summary, show)

See also some of the representative data on the absorption of light by water in a wide wavelength range (Fig. 1), ultraviolet (UV) (Fig. 2), and in the UV to near infrared (NIR) range (Fig. 3).
 
Notes:
a - these data, quoted by Querry MR et al 1991, were obtained by Segelstein DJ 1981

b - these data mark the maxima of the absorption coefficient as determined by Collins JR 1922

c - composite data

e - data for the wavelength < 1.25 μm are identified by Wieliczka DM et al 1989 as erroneous

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

 ■ Absorption coefficient

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Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O), phase changes

condensation of vapor into liquid and ice: Hermann A et al 2008

Molecular dynamics calculations by Hermann A et al 2008 show that the optical absorption spectrum blueshifts by as much as 1.1 eV when water vapor condenses into liquid water, and 1.4 eV when it condenses into ice.

Absorption coefficient of water, ordinary (H2O)

 ■ Absorption coefficient

 ■ Refractive index of water, complex, real part, data (Pan Ding et al 2014)

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Absorption coefficient of water, reviews

Reviews of historical data on absorption of light by water are given in the following publications:
1881-1928: Sawyer WR 1931
1891-1932: James HR and Birge 1938
1908-2005: Wozniak B and Dera 2007
1928-1963: Smith RC and Tyler 1976
1935-1966: Irvine WM and Pollack 1968
1950-1997: Jonasz M and Fournier 2007

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Absorption coefficient of water, seawater

Absorption coefficient of water, natural waters, seawater

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CITATION:
Jonasz M. 2007. Absorption coefficient of water (www.mjcopticaltech.com/Publications/AbsCfOfWater.php).
Published: 21-Nov-2007

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